Learning Goal: I’m working on a other question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.readHGD Lecture Notes Chapter 7This chapter discusses Emerging and Early Adulthood.Emerging Adulthood (EA)-This concept was proposed by Dr. Jeffrey Arnett in 2000.It encompasses the ages of 18-25. EA is not adolescence or young adulthood. Those in this age-range have not taken on adult responsibilities. The text highlights the 5 characteristics of EA that distinguish it from adolescence and young adulthood It is the age of:a) Identity Explorationb) Instabilityc) Self-Focusd) Feeling In-Betweene) PossibilitiesYour text provides a detailed presentation on each of these characteristics. Make sure that you have read/studied these sections.Also, here is a video of Dr. Arnett discussing EA. Make sure to watch this very informative presentation.When Does Adulthood Begin?According to your text current research has found financial independence and accepting responsibility for oneself to be the most important markers of adulthood. However, it is important to note that not all young people view being an adult in this manner. Some believe that adulthood is attained only after one has experienced certain rights of passage (e.g., marriage).Young Adult Living ArrangementsThere is no secret here. Living arrangements have dramatically changed over the course of the last few decades in the U.S. Although many do marry or cohabitate, some young adults stay in their parent’s homes because of financial reasons (e.g., student debt). Pay attention to the gender difference data summarized in this section. The Physiological PeakMake sure that you know the changes that begin to occur around the age of 30.Obesity-read/study in textAlcohol and substance abuse rates are quite high during the EA years. Binge-drinking is a particular issue on college campuses. Make sure you have read and studied the section on Alcohol and College Students.Cognitive Development-Beyond Formal Operational Thought-Some individuals are thought to manifest post-formal thought—a stage that develops after the Piagetian stage of Formal Operations. This is advanced thinking that not everyone will attain—not everyone attains formal operational thought either! Dialectical thinking is described as an example of postformal thought. As per your text it involvesthe ability to bring together salient aspects of two opposing viewpoints or positions. What this means is that an individual can now see that certain ideas may not be all bad or all good. For instance, one could come to see the good and bad in an opposing political position. See also the example of the adolescents and their viewpoints of their parentsin the text.Education-Make sure that read/study the section entitled: Is College Worth The Time and Investment?What are NEETS?—Read/studyAs defined in your text sexism or gender discrimination is prejudice or discrimination based on a person’s sex or gender. Your text also defines occupational sexism, which involves discriminatory practices, statements, or actions, based on a person’s sex, that occur in the workplace. Be familiar with the data on these topics.Temperament-Studies shows that temperament tends to remain stable from early childhood through one’s adult years.Personality- There are different theories regardingpersonality and personality development (e.g., Psychoanalysis, Trait Theory). As noted in your text there are hundreds of different personality traits.Trait Theory-This viewpoint suggests that we all vary in the degree to which we possess certain specific personality traits (e.g., introversion and extraversion). Trait theorists believe that we can measure individual traits. When we do, we see that we are all very different! No two people have the exact same personality structure. Your text discusses the 5-factor model or “The Big 5”: Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism (OCEAN). Make sure to review/study this section. Here is the link to a personality test you can take that measures the “Big 5.” https://www.outofservice.com/bigfive/Which of these traits change during adulthood?—see textAttachment-Do you remember the work of Mary Ainsworth on attachment? Our attachment style as a child may well be related to how we bond to others as adults. So, for instance a securely attached child may well grow up to form a secure attachment in their married life. As reported in the text this is most likely due to the fact that they will seek out a partner who was also securely attached as a child. Now, it is possible that those with insecure attachments can form secure bonds with others in adulthood. Positive corrective life experiences can alter the effects of bonding issues that occurred when one was a child, which then impacts one’s ability (in a positive way) to bond to others as an adult.Now, recall that young adulthood, according to Erik Erikson is the stage of intimacy vs. isolation. At this time in life young adults are motivated to seek out intimate relationships with others. In relationships we may fall in love (shockerI know !). Love—Do you remember Robert Sternberg? (hint: Triarchic Theory of Intelligence). Well Dr. Sternberg also has a theory of love.Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of LoveThis theory proposes that there are 3 components of love(intimacy, passion, commitment). Intimacy involves theability to open up and express oneself with another (e.g., sharing thoughts and feelings). Passion involves physical attraction to another person, while commitment involves the decision to stay in the relationship.Combinations of these 3 components form 7 different types of love(Infatuation, Liking, Empty, Fatuous, Romantic, Companionate,Consummate)Liking—This involves Intimacy alone. It would be akin to having a good friend.Infatuation-This involves passion alone. This person is in love with another. The other person may not even know this!Empty-This involves commitment alone. This could be a marriage in which people stay together for financial reasons.Fatuous-This is a commitment based on passion. This could involve marrying someone after only have known them for a short time period. There is no intimacy, so the partners don’t even really know each other. Yikes! I bet this doesn’t last! Can you see why?Romantic-This involves passion and intimacy. What you have here are two people who have fallen in love. Commitment may develop over time.Companionate-This involves intimacy and commitment.There is no passion. This may be a marriage where they consider each other good friends.Consummate-This involves all three components. It is characteristic in long-term marriages.Your text provides very detailed descriptions of each form of love. Know each.Here is a very brief video of Dr. Sternberg discussing his theory:There are several specific topics related to the experience of young adulthood that are different than in prior generations. Singlehood and cohabitation rates are higher than in any prior generation, while the age of first marriage has risen to the mid-to late 20’s. Also, today’s young adults may engage in casual sexual encounters with those with whom they have no intimate relationship (the so-called hook-up culture). As per your text there are psychological effects to such behavior (e.g., regret, guilt, and lowered self-esteem). Such behavior is also associated with substance abuse. Interestingly, many individuals who engage in such behavior wish to establish true relationships (see the text for details).ParenthoodPeople have fewer children today than in past generations and women are having children at a later age. Many children today are raised in family situations in which the parents are not married (e.g., single-parent households, cohabitating parents). Your text describes different influences on parenting which include parent characteristics, child characteristics, and contextual factors and sociocultural characteristics. Make sure that you have read/studied these sections.As we learned in the text current research has found that many young adults believe that financial independence and taking responsibility for themselves marks adulthood. Some, however, believe that certain rites of passage (e.g., marriage) define being an adult. What do you believe defines adulthood? Why? Please post your response and then make sure to respond to at least one other classmate’s response. Always be polite and respectful when responding to another classmate’s post.